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子宫的世界-by Lennart Nilsson

子宫的世界-by Lennart Nilsson

花12年拍“子宫的世界”瑞典攝影師完整紀錄生命「從零到有」的過程

當小朋友問「我是從哪裡來」,爸爸媽媽該如何回答?講述十月懷胎的過程太枯燥,不如給他們看看下面這些照片吧。瑞典攝影師Lennart Nilsson花費12年時間,紀錄了卵子受精、成為胚胎到發育成為胎兒的全過程。

▼Lennart在檢查膀胱的醫療器具上裝攝影鏡頭和燈光,將生命孕育的奇妙過程拍攝了下來。1965年時,他在《LIFE》雜誌上發表了一張名為「The Drama of Life Before Birth」(出生前的奇妙生命)的照片,在全世界範圍內引發轟動。

▼同年,Lennart出版了一本名為《A Child is Born》的攝影書籍。這本書剛剛推出就被搶購一空,之後多次再版,至今已經售出800萬本了。

▼進入輸卵管的精子。

▼精子接近卵子。

▼輸卵管的外觀。

▼這兩隻精子都在努力進入卵子。

▼它是最後的贏家!

▼精子順利突破卵子,這才是生命的初始。

▼懷孕第八天,胚胎著床。

▼腦部開始發育。

▼懷孕第24天,這時的胚胎還沒有骨骼。但受孕第18天,心臟就開始跳動了。

▼懷孕4週啦~

▼懷孕5個禮拜的胚胎,已經能夠看到眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴了。

▼懷孕40天,胎盤出現。

▼懷孕第8週,胚胎被包裹在胎囊中。

▼懷孕第16週,寶寶會用手探索周圍的環境。

▼寶寶出現骨骼,但都是由彈性軟骨構成的。因為皮膚太薄,能夠清晰看到血管。

▼懷孕第18週,寶寶大約14公分,已經能夠聽到外界的聲音啦。

▼懷孕第19週,小手已經有模有樣了。

▼懷孕第20週,寶寶大約20公分,頭部出現胎毛。

▼懷孕24週,能夠清楚看到寶寶的模樣。

▼懷孕第26週。

▼懷孕6個月,寶寶調整到頭下腳上的狀態,隨時做好準備來到世界上。

▼懷孕36週,寶寶很快就能與爸爸媽媽見面啦。

支持墮胎的人認為胎兒只是毫無意義的組織,但Lennart堅信,生命在受精後24小時已經開始了。《A Child is Born》這本書也成為了反墮胎運動的標誌性產物。2017年1月28日,Lennart離開了世界,享年94歲。他雖然離去,這些照片卻是寶貴的財富!

☘️Some valuable articles for sharing- Preschool education ☘️

☘️1. 《Accessing the Inaccessible: Redefining Play as a Spectrum》:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6084083/pdf/fpsyg-09-01124.pdf

☘️2. 《Do academic preschools yield stronger benefits? Cognitive emphasis, dosage, and early learning》:https://gse.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/gse-archive-3/Pre-K_Benefits_MiddleClass_Fuller_May2017.pdf

☘️3. 《The double-edged sword of pedagogy: Instruction limits spontaneous exploration and discovery》:http://eccl.mit.edu/papers/BonawitzShaftoetal2011.pdf

☘️4. 《When children are better (or at least more open-minded) learners than adults: Developmental differences in learning the forms of casual relationships》:http://cocosci.princeton.edu/papers/WhenChildrenAreBetter.pdf【相关文章《Preschoolers Outsmart College Students In Figuring Out Gadgets》:https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/06/30/325230618/preschoolers-outsmart-college-students-in-figuring-out-gadgets】

☘️5. 《Prescription for Play: What Science Says About the Importance of Play for Children and Families》:https://childrensmuseums.blog/2018/11/21/prescription-for-play-webinar/

☘️6. 《The Relation between Teachers’ and Children’s Playfulness: A Pilot Study》:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5742179/pdf/fpsyg-08-02214.pdf

☘️7. 《Dewey on Seriousness, Playfulness and the Role of the Teacher》:https://res.mdpi.com/education/education-07-00016/article_deploy/education-07-00016.pdf?filename=&attachment=1

☘️8. 《Play as Place: A Safe Space for Young Children to Learn about the World》:https://naturalstart.org/sites/default/files/journal/6._final_nitecki.pdf

☘️9. 《Guided Play: A Solution to the Play Versus Learning Dichotomy》:https://templeinfantlab.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2017/12/Playful-Learning-A-solution-to-the-play-versus-learning-dichotomy.pdf

☘️10. 《Making Play Work for Education》:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Roberta_Golinkoff/publication/276087464_Making_play_work_for_education/links/555369b008ae980ca60854c1/Making-play-work-for-education.pdf?origin=publication_detail

☘️11. 《The Impact of Pretend Play on Children’s Development: A Review of the Evidence》:https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/abf2/1d598275ea3bf51f4f59a4fc1388cb0a58b8.pdf?_ga=2.85148828.426928205.1552026256-929369242.1552026256

☘️12. 《The language of play: Developing preschool vocabulary through play following shared book-reading》:https://templeinfantlab.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2018/09/SpiewakToubetal2018.pdf

☘️13. 《Taking Shape: Supporting Preschoolers’ Acquisition of Geometric Knowledge Through Guided Play》:https://www.academia.edu/19508644/Taking_Shape_Supporting_Preschoolers_Acquisition_of_Geometric_Knowledge_Through_Guided_Play

☘️14. 《Is Kindergarten the New First Grade?》:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2332858415616358

☘️15. 《Crisis in the Kindergarten: Why Children Need to Play in School》:http://www.allianceforchildhood.org/sites/allianceforchildhood.org/files/file/kindergarten_report.pdf

☘️16. 《Putting Education in “Educational” Apps: Lessons from the Science of Learning》:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jordy_Kaufman/publication/275410459_Putting_Education_in_Educational_Apps_Lessons_From_the_Science_of_Learning/links/553c510c0cf2c415bb0b2cb5/Putting-Education-in-Educational-Apps-Lessons-From-the-Science-of-Learning.pdf?origin=publication_detail

☘️17. 《Learning in the Digital Age: Putting Education Back in Educational Apps for Young Children》:http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/sites/default/files/textes-experts/en/4738/learning-in-the-digital-age-putting-education-back-in-educational-apps-for-young-children.pdf

☘️18. 《Association of the Type of Toy Used During Play with the Quantity and Quality of Infant-Parent Communication》:https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/articlepdf/2478386/poi150082.pdf

☘️19. 《Soft Skills and Success Go Hand-in-Hand》:http://www.urbanchildinstitute.org/articles/perceptions/soft-skills-and-success-go-hand-in-hand

☘️20. 《The 10 skills you need to thrive in the Fourth Industrial Revolution》:https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-10-skills-you-need-to-thrive-in-the-fourth-industrial-revolution/

☘️21. 《Article 31 of The Convention on the Rights of the Child》:http://ipaworld.org/childs-right-to-play/article-31/

🌿什么是人类的倾向 ? 12 Human tendency🌿

🍃人类的倾向

🍃Human Tendencies🍃

从人类出现到现在,人类依靠着智慧和适应力努力地生活下来。不管是来自哪个国家、种族和社会的人都会因此显现相像的探索、创造和发明形式。玛利亚蒙特梭利的医学背景使她具有很好的观察能力,经过多年的观察她发现总结了12种人类倾向

(Human tendencies describe what human beings tend to think, act, behave and proceed in a particular way.)。

人类倾向驱使人类对自己所在的世界进行建设并努力让世界变得更美好

(to construct and refine the world around them)

蒙台梭利指出:人类倾向需要经过24年的时间才能完全发展。

在这24年内,这十二项人类的倾向,让人们可以慢慢趋向于完美的去完成自己的使命。

1. 探索(Human Tendenies for Exploration)

2. 方向(Human Tendenies for Orientation)

3. 秩序(Human Tendencies for Order)

4. 沟通(Human Tendencies for Communication)

5. 抽象(Human Tendencies for Abstraction)

6. 想象(Human Tendencies for Imagination)

7. 工作(Human Tendenies for Work)

8. 重复(Human Tendenies for Repetition)

9. 自我修正(Human Tendencies for Self-correction)

10.精确(Human Tendenies for Exactness)

11.自我完美(Human Tendenies for Self-perfection)

12.数学心智(Human Tendenies for Mathematical Mind)

🌿环境准备☘️

人类倾向是推动人类发展的一种驱动力,当我们了解了这些倾向,同时发现他们无处不在。

正是因为这种人类倾向,才迫使婴孩把所有他们能找到的东西都放到嘴里,也是为什么小孩子会很想知道事物都是怎样构成的?同时认识到不停地重复可以让我们把事情达到更完美的境界。

蒙台梭利的教室都是根据这些人类倾向来构建的,所以在这种环境下的孩子不需要被逼着学习,因为他们本身会受这种人类倾向的驱使去对周围的事物产生兴趣。

🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃

动物的本能让动物的需求得以满足,人类的倾向性让人类的需求得以更好的满足。

在蒙台梭利教育事业的早期,她通过观察和学习,给孩子们创立了自由选择和重复工作的环境,给了孩子信任和支持;孩子们身上爆发出了巨大的学习热情,教育成果也让整个世界为之震动。而这一成果,也让蒙台梭利困惑不已,她一定是做对了什么,才会让她实现了传统老师无法实现的教育奇迹。作为人类学家的她,开始不停的思考背后的原因,开始思考人类的行为和环境的关系。

作为人类学家,她熟知原始人类的生活,她意识到人类和动物最大的不同是,动物应对环境的方式是本能驱动。而人类应对环境则是由一些行为倾向组成的,而非固定不变的本能,这就给了人类无限的变化和可能,从而适应了各种环境的挑战,更好的满足了人类生存和发展的需求。

蒙台梭利在不同场合谈到了人类的倾向:定位、探索、秩序、工作、沟通、抽象、活动、重复、自我完善、精确。玛丽亚也提到了人类需求的组成,精神需求和物质需求等。

蒙台梭利指出人类倾向需要经过24年(4个大阶段,每阶段6年,每阶段又分为2个子阶段,每个子阶段3年)的时间才能发展完全,每个阶段的人类倾向有不同的特征。每个阶段的前三年特别重要,因为是他们获得特质的时期,所以叫做《获得期》,每个阶段的后三年都是为了巩固前面三年所获得的,所以叫《巩固期》。在0-6岁这个阶段的孩子和在12-18岁这个阶段的孩子会有相似的特征,因为0-6岁可以是被看做是生理上的新生儿,而12-18岁的孩子可以看作是社会的新生儿。

12个人类倾向如下:

❤️1. 探索(Human Tendenies for Exploration)
我们生活的世界充满了美好的声音、味道、质地、味道和颜色。我们需要通过探索来了解这个充满美好事物的世界,知道在这个世界里有什么东西,并与我们所在的环境建立好关系。孩子天生就充满好奇,他们喜欢用自己的感官探索环境周围的事物,对这个精彩的世界有更多的了解,这就是为什么我们经常看到孩子什么都想摸一下,什么都放嘴巴里,然后经常会瞪大双眼仔细地看一样东西。不同的文化会影响我们怎样呈现探索的人类倾向。

0-6岁探索倾向的呈现:
嘴巴是0-6岁的孩子第一个发展起来的感官器官,所以6岁以下孩子的特点就是用嘴巴来探索,喜欢把所有东西都放嘴里来更多地了解它们。成人的角色:在这里的角色就是帮孩子准备一个丰富的环境,里面放满很多它们可以自己用感官探索的东西,并试图帮他们建立起除了父母之外的其他参照点。家长的误区:最大的误区可能就是一直抱着孩子,觉得那样子对他最好,觉得小孩子就是吃喝睡,然后又舍不得让他们坐地上,不让他们尝东西,如果这样的话孩子就没有探索环境的机会,人类倾向就不能及时正常地发展起来。

6-12岁探索倾向的呈现:
用心智(mind)探索,我们经常看到的就是孩子一直问“为什么”。

12-18岁探索倾向的呈现:
探索自己在人群中的角色,会开始探索和男孩或者是女孩的关系,会有自己的的小群体,并建立起各种关系。

18-24岁探索倾向的呈现:
如果前3个阶段都发展顺利的话,那么在这个阶段,他们会探索怎么样回报人类,使人类进步。

❤️2. 方向(Human Tendenies for Orientation)

人类需要知道他和他所在的环境的一种关系。方向是和人类探索的倾向相联系的,当孩子进入一个新的环境时,他们总会想看一下摸一下在他们周围的所有东西,他们探索的越多就会建立越多的参照点(points of reference),然后这些参照点会成为他们的向导。方向的人类倾向发展好坏与建立参照点的能力也是息息相关。对于参照点,它们的一致性非常重要。方向对儿童发展至关重要,如果没有方向,孩子就无法活动,也不可能了解环境。

成人的角色:帮助儿童建立强大的参照点系统(strong system of points of reference);让他们觉得世界是一个安全而且精彩的地方值得他们去探索,并渴望成为世界的一部分,所以周围成人积极乐观的态度相当重要。

误区:一直抱着孩子,让他们感觉世界是一个不安全的地方,只有大人怀里才安全。

0-6岁方向倾向的呈现:

孩子会建立感官方面的参照点,比如说声音、颜色、味道等。所以不要经常改动孩子房间的布局,他们需要那些一直在的东西当做参照点来确定他们的位置,还有就是要用相同的肥皂洗衣服。

6-12岁方向倾向的呈现:
用心智建立参照点,比如说他们会利用大脑中已经存在的图片想象北极的样子。

12-18岁方向倾向的呈现:
他们会把家庭中父母之间的关系当做参照点带到家庭之外来探索和异性之间的关系。

18-24岁方向倾向的呈现:
参照点为偶像、模范等。

❤️3. 秩序(Human Tendencies for Order)
两种秩序:外在的(external)和内在的(internal)。一个有秩序的教室(外在的)可以帮助孩子建立有秩序的观念(内在的)。秩序可以帮助建立参照点,年龄越小对秩序的需求越大。秩序和人类的生存直接联系着,比如说,我们不会用用剪刀去开罐头。在照顾孩子时,我们都要保证如果那个东西是为了什么做出来的我们就要拿那个东西来做什么事情,比如说笔就是拿来写字的,如果我们又拿来写字又拿来夹头发,孩子会迷惑这个笔到底是用来干什么的。

秩序也和次序(sequence)有关,所以秩序可以让我们清楚什么会是下一件发生的事情,帮助人们预见将来从而带来安全感。

❤️4. 沟通(Human Tendencies for Communication)
人们都乐于向别人传达自己的想法、感受和自己获取的信息。沟通的方式有很多种,其中包括写的或者说的、触摸、脸部表情、动作、艺术、音乐甚至是跳舞等(verbal/written language, body language, sign language, computer language)。沟通是和别人建立相互了解关系的基础。

这个人类倾向可以说是所有人类倾向中最强烈呈现出来的,因为就算是一个瘫痪了的人躺在床上也会想办法和人用眼神来沟通。

❤️5. 抽象(Human Tendencies for Abstraction)
这种人类倾向是我们和动物之间最大的区别之一。我们可以在自己的脑海里呈现还没有发生的事情的画面,我们可以去感受和表达没有实体存在的那些情绪,我们可以想象不存在的但是有可能会成为现实的东西。抽象和我们概括的能力相联系,我们通过观察了解事物的各种具体表象,提出这些事物的重点或者是精华,然后通过想象让他们在我们脑海里呈现不同的形态,然后一步一步让他们成为现实。所以抽象也是我们创造新事物的一种工具。

❤️6. 想象(Human Tendencies for Imagination)
想象和创造能力相关联,这种创造的能力是通过联系实际、观察、还有抽象来创造新事物的。在抽象的人类倾向中已经提到,我们利用想象来进行创造。在这里我们要把想象(imagination)和幻想(fantasy)区别开来。想象是以现实为基础的,和我们对实际生活的认识有联系,我们想象出来的事物是有可能会成为现实的,比如说里昂那多达芬奇根据他的数学和物理知识设计出了直升机;而幻想出来的东西是不可能在现实生活出现的,比如说米老鼠和唐老鸭这种迪斯尼卡通人物。

❤️7. 工作(Human Tendenies for Work)
工作的人类倾向在生命开始的最初那一刻就已经呈现了。工作可以让我们觉得自己有价值。工作可以帮助发展成就和自尊。工作可以让我们使想象变为现实。玛利亚蒙台梭利相信孩子是通过工作来构建一个真实的自己。很多人都不能认识到努力工作是成为一个完整的人类的需要。工作对孩子来说不是游戏,而是帮助他们继续成长,孩子需要大量的工作来建构完整的自己(self-construction).

手是工作的最重要的工具,它是用来表达和实现想法的工具(Hand is the instrument of our intelligence)。

“由于他必须通过自身的运动,通过手的活动,才能发展自我,因此,他需要有一些能使他工作的物体,以便给他提供活动的动机。”

—-摘自《童年的秘密》第十二章“手”

❤️8. 重复(Human Tendenies for Repetition)

这种人类倾向发生在孩子对自己所做的工作进行一次又一次的重复。在重复的过程中,孩子们会对自己的错误进行纠正,一直到自己满足为止(self-satisfaction)。大多时候这种重复都是为了让自己对自己所做的工作更加熟练,就算是熟练之后孩子们可能还是会为了乐趣继续重复这项工作。

❤️9. 自我修正(Human Tendencies for Self-correction)
自我修正是发生的重复工作的过程中的,通过自我修正慢慢达到精确。

❤️10.精确(Human Tendenies for Exactness)

我们如果有观察过孩子,就会发现当孩子把某样东西放回去时放在了不对的地方他们会感到不开心,或者有时候在用积木搭建塔楼时他们会很整齐地将积木排成一排。人们本能的会想让自己的工作更加精确,当工作做得完全精确时,会带来很大的满足感。

❤️11.自我完美(Human Tendenies for Self-perfection)

当我们经过不停重复地工作、在重复中修正、慢慢达到精确然后到达完美的境界。这是一个循环的过程,在到达完美之后,还是可以再继续重复这个过程以至于达到更加完美的境界。

❤️12.数学心智(Human Tendenies for Mathematical Mind)
数学心智是一种逻辑心智,这种心智一直存在。它使得我们能够测量(measure)、计算(calculate)、比较(compare)、对比(contrast)、估算(estimate),它也让我们了解先后次序(sequence),使得我们知道什么在第一步做,什么在第二步等。

例子:我们需要数学心智来过马路,穿过狭窄的地方;孩子需要知道,他需要爬多远才能拿到那个想要的东西等。

总结
人类倾向是推动人类发展的一种驱动力,当我们了解了他们的时候我们可以发现他们无处不在。正是这种人类倾向才迫使婴孩把所有他们能找到的东西都放到嘴里,也是为什么小孩子会很想知道事物都是怎样构成的,也是我们为什么都会想寻找很美的家具或者饰品来装饰自己的家,同时认识到不停地重复可以让我们把事情达到更完美的境界。

蒙台梭利的教室都是根据这些人类倾向来构建的,所以在这种环境下的孩子不需要被逼着学习,因为他们本身会受这种人类倾向的驱使去对周围的事物产生兴趣。我们给孩子准备的环境必须是安全的,环境里都是还是可以控制和拿来感受的。工作要整齐有秩序,可处理的。这些都可以促进探索和精确化。如果我们可以在孩子成长的过程中,帮他们排除妨碍他们人类倾向发展的障碍,那他们所展现的知识、创新的想法、无限的求知欲会让我们无比惊讶。

🌱🌱🌱🌱🌱🌱🌱🌱🌱🌱🌱🌱🌱🌱

The history of early childhood education

The history of early childhood education

☘️1)The roots of early childhood education go as far back as the early 1500s, where the concept of educating children was attributed to Martin Luther (1483-1546).

Back then, very few people knew how to read and many were illiterate. Martin Luther believed that education should be universal and made it a point to emphasize that education strengthened the family as well as the community.

Luther believed that children should be educated to read independently so that they could have access to the Bible. This meant that teaching children how to read at an early age would be a strong benefit to society.

☘️2)Building on this idea, the next individual who contributed to the early beginnings of early childhood education was John Amos Comenius (1592- 1670), who strongly believed that learning for children is rooted in sensory exploration.

Comenius wrote the first children’s picture book to promote literacy.

☘️3)Then there was John Locke (1632- 1704), who penned famous term of “blank slate”, also known as tabula rasa, which postulated that it is how children start out and the environment fills their metaphorical “slate”.

☘️4)A major influencer was Friedrich Froebel (1782 – 1852), who believed that children learn through play. He designed teacher training where he emphasized the importance of observation and developing programs and activities based on the child’s skill level and readiness. Froebel formalized the early childhood setting as well as founded the first kindergarten.

☘️5)Further building from this concept, Maria Montessori (1870-1952) viewed the children as a source of knowledge and the educator as a social engineer. Reviewed education as a means to enhance children’s lives meaning the learning environment is just as important as learning itself. She took the position that children’s senses should be educated first and then the children’s intellect. The Montessori Method is an internationally recognized mode of educating children.

☘️6)Jean Piaget (1896-1980) established a theory of learning where children’s development are broken down into a series of stages (sensory motor, preoperational, concrete operation). Piaget theorized that children learn through direct and active interaction with the environment.

☘️7)Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) proposed a socio-cultural position for the development of children. He believed that social interaction provides a medium for cognitive, social and linguistic development in children. Vygotsky believed that children learn through scaffolding their skills; this meant a more capable member of the community/society would assist the child in completing tasks that were within or just above the child’s capability, which is also known as zone of proximal development. Vygotsky emphasized collaboration and the implementation of a mixed age groupings of children to support knowledge/skill acquisition.

☘️8)John Dewey (1859-1952) strongly believed that learning should originate from the interests of children, which is foundational to the projects approach. The educator is there to promote their interests for discovery and inquiry. Dewey saw the classroom as a place to foster social consciousness and thus the classroom should be democratically run.

☘️9)Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), the creator of what is now known as the Waldorf education philosophy and schools, focused on developing free and morally responsible individuals with a high level of social competence. Steiner broke this down into three developmental stages; Preschool to age 6 (experiential education), Age 6-14 (formal education) and ages 14+ (conceptual/academic education).

☘️10)Erik Erikson (1902-1994) developed psychosocial stages of development for children where the parent and educator play a pivotal role in supporting the child’s success in every stage for a positive outcome. Erikson stressed that the ordinance of social emotional development is a key component to the early childhood curriculum.

☘️11)Loris Malaguzzi (1920-1994), the founder of the Reggio Emilia approach, based on the original childcare centre opened in the town of Reggio Emilia, was a strong believer in documenting the children’s learning and interests which the educators would base their programming around on for the following days.

☘️12)David Weikart (1931-2003) the founder of HighScope, which drew from the theories of Piaget, Dewey and Vygotsky, primarily focused on the child’s intellectual maturation. The landmark study that earned HighScope validity was the Perry Preschool Project in 1962. A randomized controlled study of 123 children of similar skill level entering the study, split into two groups, one receiving HighScope instruction while the control group did not receive it, but continued the traditional process. Results indicated an increase in academic success, academic adherence and an increase in wages.

🌱In general, the theorists for early education all would like to see the achievement of a common goal

—🌱to see the successful development of children in their primary years. How that goal is achieved differs in the structure of each curriculum.

🌸Childcare Curriculum Today:

A Brief Guide

🌸1)Theme-based Learning

This educational method is based on certain topics that may arise from different sources, such as seasonal/weather changes, upcoming events, interests of the educator, and religious events. Theme-based learning can also have direct instruction roots. Learning is not based on qualitative interests of the child, but rather the quantitative delivery of content by the teacher. That means program planning can be done weeks and months ahead of time. The advantage of this is that the educator knows exactly what they’re teaching. A disadvantage is that what they’re teaching may not be of interest to the child in the moment, causing them to be disengaged. Classroom learning is very structured and contingent on the current theme. That means that all the material in the classroom would have some relevance/connection to the theme at hand.

🌸2)Montessori

Montessori-based childcare centres are available globally. Since the Montessori is a very specific style, there is also a governing body for Montessori schools and educators through which they should have their certification. This is important to note since centres may declare themselves as “Montessori” while not really adhering to the true delivery of the Montessori Method. When considering putting your child in a Montessori classroom, be aware that the classroom is structured towards the individual child and their interests. This means that the children in the classroom are given the autonomy to learn and use the material in the classroom independently. This may not be effective for all children, who may require more of a structured learning environment. There may also be transitional challenges later on when moving onto traditional or “mainstream” schools.

🌸3)High Scope

This method is also very unique where learning opportunities are broken down into three major components—the “plan-do-review” process to learning.

Children will take a certain amount of time to plan out what they will do before acting upon it. This involves describing the materials they will use to other children they will be interacting with.

When the children “do”, they execute their plan in a very purposeful way.

Following the activity, they “review” or discuss with an adult and/or other children what they did and what they learned. High scope looks to assess the child based on anecdotal notes broken down by the following categories: approaches to learning, social and emotional development, physical development and health, language/literacy/communication, mathematics, creative arts, science and technology, and social studies.

At parent conferences, these anecdotes are shared with the parents to demonstrate learning is happening within these different categories. High scope centres should be accredited through the high scope governing body much the same as Montessori schools, where they can label themselves as high scope yet not truly adhere to or be recognized as accredited.

🌸4)Reggio Emilia / Emergent

This approach focuses heavily on documenting the children’s learning as well as allowing the children to really take on their interests. The parents and educators, as a community are there to support the learning process of the child over the time that they are there at a Reggio or a Reggio-inspired centre. The learning is broken up into projects that are open-ended. Children are given certain concepts that they need to solve through research, questioning and experimentation. There is a strong focus on the arts, which is a vehicle to allow the child to express their thoughts and emotions through multiple mediums. Reggio also looks to expose the children to nature, which means there is a lot of outdoor play in environments that promote the use using natural items from the environment to be incorporated into their play. There are no standardized tests and learning is demonstrated through the projects that they explored, which was documented by the educator’s.

Waldorf kindergarten Dinkelsbühl – Classroom Aesthetics and Set-up

🌸5)Waldorf

In this educational method, children are exposed to a humanitarian, socially responsible and compassionate mode of approaching the world. Typically the educator that works with one group of children will be with that same group as they get older and go from one grade to the next. The arts and academics are fused together within the lessons. These schools are also zero technology in the classroom and exposure for the children. This methodology does however, only focuses on reading when the child reaches the age of seven, with emphasis on storytelling and learning through play. Part of the Waldorf teacher training is learning about anthroposophy, developed by Rudolf Steiner. Although not directly taught to the children, this spiritual philosophy does diffuse to some extent into the daily interactions.

🌼Applications in Programming:

Blended versus

Traditional Approach

Give the variety of approaches to early childhood education, it begs the question:

which one is the best?

Or, more appropriately, does one method hold sway over another?

The short, and perhaps frustrating, answer is:

🌈it depends.

Some programs prefer a traditional approach, adhering to a pure curriculum.

🌈Montessori and Waldorf are both approaches that can be sustained well beyond the early childhood level and into high school.

That said, it is important to understand that methods and pedagogies are frameworks that can inspire practice rather than cut and dry rubrics. In the present moment, it is increasingly the case where programs adopt a blended approach incorporating two or more methods in their program. This is due to the fact that there are distinct advantages to curating aspects from each available method, and adapting it to engage children.

Imagine a curriculum built from a combination of the different methods that allows teachers to strike a balance between instructional teaching and constructive learning.

Taking the thought experiment further, 🌷one could technically draw on Reggio for its community and documentation;

🌷Montessori for its independent self-directed studies;

🌷Waldorf for its integration of the arts and social consciousness and lastly;

🌷High Scope for its invaluable three-step process to ensure purposeful, planned and reflected learning processes.

Ultimately, the choice of curriculum boils down to the mission of a center.

⭐️Is the goal to foster community,

⭐️or to bring structure and process,

⭐️or to bring children back to nature,

⭐️or something entirely new?

These are the questions that will help curate a curriculum. I hope that this article has provided insight and inspired questions!

“感官越敏锐,来自于环境的情报和反馈就会越准确,智力发展就越有效。” ~~蒙台梭利教室的感官区介绍~~

“感官越敏锐,来自于环境的情报和反馈就会越准确,智力发展就越有效。” ~~蒙台梭利教室的感官区介绍~~

今天要向大家介绍一下,蒙台梭利教室的感官区。

在蒙台梭利工作材料中,感官区的教具第一眼看过去是最像玩具的,事实上很多市面上的益智玩具最初都受到了蒙台梭利的启发。感官教具为孩子提供的探索空间和吸引力是无可比拟的。但它也常常是被误用最多的材料。它需要导师对孩子使用材料工作的状态有一个准确的判断,懂得什么时候需要重新演示材料和重新引导,也要懂得什么时候让孩子大胆尝试。

感官教育的目的

帮助儿童感官的发展对早期认知发展至关重要。因为感官和智力发展的关系非常密切。感官是用来接收来自外部世界图像的器官,如视觉、听觉、触觉器官等,智力是建立在感官从环境中获得的印象发展而来的。感官越敏锐,来自于环境的情报和反馈就会越准确,智力发展就越有效。

儿童早期感官的发展

在0至3岁的初期,儿童通过感官感受到许多印象,包括对象的品质和特征,这个年幼的孩子吸收了他的环境中的一切,并储存在他的无意识记忆中。在这个无意识的过程中,他用这些印象构建了他的吸收性心灵。

随后在3至6岁,孩子意识到所吸收众多信息的类别。感官材料旨在帮助这个年龄段的孩子理解消化这些概念,帮助形成逻辑分类。特别是2.5岁到3.5岁的孩子,感官发展活跃而敏感,是使用这些材料建立概念的关键期。四岁之后,孩子对感官材料的基本使用方法慢慢失去兴趣,需要导师引导他们使用材料进行深入的、创造性的探索,如将某两种有内在联系的材料一起组合使用。

感官教具的定义

蒙台梭利感官教具是一个系列的物体按照某种确定的性质组合在一起,但是存在程度变化的材料。

蒙台梭利感官教具的功能是通过进一步精化感知能力来帮助儿童智力的发展,帮助孩子分类所有物体以及他所见过和经历的一切。孩子学习如何观察物体存在不同的特质,进行比较,并作出选择,例如匹配或排序。通过使用这些材料,还可以检测一些身体上的障碍,如色弱等。

除了这些直接目的之外,感官材料还为算术,几何和代数的后续学习提供间接准备。 例如,大多数感官材料是十个一组的差别序列,为数学的十进制做间接的准备。

感官教具的特点

如果要用一句话概括感官教具的特点,那就是“具象化的抽象概念”。教具有效地把抽象的概念,如质量、体积、材质等,变成孩子看得见摸得着的实物,符合孩子的接受能力,让孩子更快地理解这些概念。以下的特点让感官教具具有这样的功能:

单独强调一项困难度
凸显一个性质上的差别,例如红棒材料,凸显的是长度的差别,而保留物体其他方面性质如宽度、高度等的一致性,让孩子一次认知一个特质。

单独凸显一项要孩子掌握的物体性质  
当物体存在多个性质上的差别时,孩子就容易对物体性质的抽象概念出现混淆,所以教具让孩子可以有效地一项一项地掌握每个概念,认知后再进行组合。例如:触温板的工作中要使用眼罩,这样就放大并强化了触感的区别,而不让视觉作为干扰。

材料的使用包含着运动的发展  
材料被设计得与孩子在身体上是成比例的,与孩子的体能发展是相符的,这样他就可以处理它们,甚至是一些重的东西。

材料中内在的错误控制  
蒙台梭利的感官材料具有内在纠错功能,让孩子自己发现问题的所在而不会感到挫败。例如:在三角形几何盒子A中,每个三角形的黑色线条就是提示的错误控制。

包含“了解世界的钥匙”  
感官材料所提供的都是普遍性的概念,不分文化地域,所有的颜色、形状、长度等概念都是通用的,尽管世界上这些概念有数不尽的表现形式,在教具中选取只是最具代表性的样本,所以感官区所提供的训练也被称为是给孩子“了解世界的钥匙”。

感官材料的延伸练习:记忆游戏

在孩子已经能合理地使用材料,并对材料的基本知识点了解之后,大多数的感官材料都有很多隐藏的延伸活动,不仅巩固基本概念,测试掌握程度,还会增添乐趣,重新点燃孩子使用材料学习的兴趣。主要的延伸活动是以下四种记忆游戏:

游戏一:远距离游戏
这种游戏多用于配对和排序的工作材料。相对于在小范围桌子或毯子上的配对来讲,远距离配对增加了难度和挑战,儿童不再能直接地看见所有的物品,却需要锻炼对物品特质的记忆力,进一步地发展抽象能力。例如,几何柜和几何卡片这项工作中,孩子需要先记住卡片上的形状,然后步行穿越到远处的毯子上拿来他记忆中的形状材料,走回来再通过贴合图片来检验他的记忆和选择是否正确。这是一项孩子们乐此不疲的活动,特别是那些爱动的孩子,因为可以合法地走来走去!

游戏二:语言游戏
很多人可能想不到感官材料也是孩子学习语言的重要工具。所有的材料都有对应的精确语言,那些可能对成人来讲都是艰涩的词语,孩子们学来却可以不费吹灰之力。通过感官材料来学习语言,有趣又有效。例如:一些列拼图地图的工作,孩子们在拼图和制作地图的过程中,学习到的国家名词可能超过很多成年人,但重要的不是他能记住具体国家的名字,而是他在无意中为语言发展积累了语音、语感、词汇等等组成部分。

游戏三:在环境中找到与材料匹配的特质
拿着材料去周围环境中去比较,从而找到和材料具有一样特质的物品。这项游戏特别适合那些刚到新环境的小孩子们,他们对环境的物品充满了好奇,但是由于能操作和使用的工作材料特别有限,所以常常没有机会去接触很多物品。现在他们可以用他们的好奇来完成任务,发展他们的观察力和分类能力。例如:颜色盒子3,里面有众多色调差微妙的颜色,孩子需要非常用心地去找,在以前他没有注意到的差别中去匹配,然后发现:原来这盆植物的绿色和另一个有那么一点点不一样。

游戏四:分级材料的小组活动
这是一项重新点燃孩子对熟悉工作的热情的好方法,而且还可以训练孩子的合作能力。拿粉红塔为例,大家都知道粉红塔是3岁左右的孩子做的最早的感官教具之一,很可能被大一点的孩子认为“太过简单”,特别是那些四岁多的孩子,他们处于半懂不懂的状态,却对什么都不屑一顾,并常常抱团,有很强的社交需求,总之可能让你很头疼。那么你可以拿出粉红塔,聚集起10个知道怎么正确使用它的孩子,把手背在后面,偷偷地被分配粉红塔的一个立方体,要求他们在不拿出来看的情况下,彼此不知道每个人所持有的立方体的大小的情况下,靠触摸合作完成粉红塔的建造。这是一项非常吸引孩子的游戏,你一定会听到他们不断地要求你“再来一次吧!”

感官教具体现了蒙台梭利的探索式学习,儿童在学习中是真正的主体,每个孩子发现和接受这些抽象概念的方式、时机和顺序都是独特的,给他们所需的工具、材料和适当的引导,还有一个自由的空间,他们会创造出一个独特的世界。