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The history of early childhood education

The history of early childhood education

☘️1)The roots of early childhood education go as far back as the early 1500s, where the concept of educating children was attributed to Martin Luther (1483-1546).

Back then, very few people knew how to read and many were illiterate. Martin Luther believed that education should be universal and made it a point to emphasize that education strengthened the family as well as the community.

Luther believed that children should be educated to read independently so that they could have access to the Bible. This meant that teaching children how to read at an early age would be a strong benefit to society.

☘️2)Building on this idea, the next individual who contributed to the early beginnings of early childhood education was John Amos Comenius (1592- 1670), who strongly believed that learning for children is rooted in sensory exploration.

Comenius wrote the first children’s picture book to promote literacy.

☘️3)Then there was John Locke (1632- 1704), who penned famous term of “blank slate”, also known as tabula rasa, which postulated that it is how children start out and the environment fills their metaphorical “slate”.

☘️4)A major influencer was Friedrich Froebel (1782 – 1852), who believed that children learn through play. He designed teacher training where he emphasized the importance of observation and developing programs and activities based on the child’s skill level and readiness. Froebel formalized the early childhood setting as well as founded the first kindergarten.

☘️5)Further building from this concept, Maria Montessori (1870-1952) viewed the children as a source of knowledge and the educator as a social engineer. Reviewed education as a means to enhance children’s lives meaning the learning environment is just as important as learning itself. She took the position that children’s senses should be educated first and then the children’s intellect. The Montessori Method is an internationally recognized mode of educating children.

☘️6)Jean Piaget (1896-1980) established a theory of learning where children’s development are broken down into a series of stages (sensory motor, preoperational, concrete operation). Piaget theorized that children learn through direct and active interaction with the environment.

☘️7)Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) proposed a socio-cultural position for the development of children. He believed that social interaction provides a medium for cognitive, social and linguistic development in children. Vygotsky believed that children learn through scaffolding their skills; this meant a more capable member of the community/society would assist the child in completing tasks that were within or just above the child’s capability, which is also known as zone of proximal development. Vygotsky emphasized collaboration and the implementation of a mixed age groupings of children to support knowledge/skill acquisition.

☘️8)John Dewey (1859-1952) strongly believed that learning should originate from the interests of children, which is foundational to the projects approach. The educator is there to promote their interests for discovery and inquiry. Dewey saw the classroom as a place to foster social consciousness and thus the classroom should be democratically run.

☘️9)Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), the creator of what is now known as the Waldorf education philosophy and schools, focused on developing free and morally responsible individuals with a high level of social competence. Steiner broke this down into three developmental stages; Preschool to age 6 (experiential education), Age 6-14 (formal education) and ages 14+ (conceptual/academic education).

☘️10)Erik Erikson (1902-1994) developed psychosocial stages of development for children where the parent and educator play a pivotal role in supporting the child’s success in every stage for a positive outcome. Erikson stressed that the ordinance of social emotional development is a key component to the early childhood curriculum.

☘️11)Loris Malaguzzi (1920-1994), the founder of the Reggio Emilia approach, based on the original childcare centre opened in the town of Reggio Emilia, was a strong believer in documenting the children’s learning and interests which the educators would base their programming around on for the following days.

☘️12)David Weikart (1931-2003) the founder of HighScope, which drew from the theories of Piaget, Dewey and Vygotsky, primarily focused on the child’s intellectual maturation. The landmark study that earned HighScope validity was the Perry Preschool Project in 1962. A randomized controlled study of 123 children of similar skill level entering the study, split into two groups, one receiving HighScope instruction while the control group did not receive it, but continued the traditional process. Results indicated an increase in academic success, academic adherence and an increase in wages.

🌱In general, the theorists for early education all would like to see the achievement of a common goal

—🌱to see the successful development of children in their primary years. How that goal is achieved differs in the structure of each curriculum.

🌸Childcare Curriculum Today:

A Brief Guide

🌸1)Theme-based Learning

This educational method is based on certain topics that may arise from different sources, such as seasonal/weather changes, upcoming events, interests of the educator, and religious events. Theme-based learning can also have direct instruction roots. Learning is not based on qualitative interests of the child, but rather the quantitative delivery of content by the teacher. That means program planning can be done weeks and months ahead of time. The advantage of this is that the educator knows exactly what they’re teaching. A disadvantage is that what they’re teaching may not be of interest to the child in the moment, causing them to be disengaged. Classroom learning is very structured and contingent on the current theme. That means that all the material in the classroom would have some relevance/connection to the theme at hand.

🌸2)Montessori

Montessori-based childcare centres are available globally. Since the Montessori is a very specific style, there is also a governing body for Montessori schools and educators through which they should have their certification. This is important to note since centres may declare themselves as “Montessori” while not really adhering to the true delivery of the Montessori Method. When considering putting your child in a Montessori classroom, be aware that the classroom is structured towards the individual child and their interests. This means that the children in the classroom are given the autonomy to learn and use the material in the classroom independently. This may not be effective for all children, who may require more of a structured learning environment. There may also be transitional challenges later on when moving onto traditional or “mainstream” schools.

🌸3)High Scope

This method is also very unique where learning opportunities are broken down into three major components—the “plan-do-review” process to learning.

Children will take a certain amount of time to plan out what they will do before acting upon it. This involves describing the materials they will use to other children they will be interacting with.

When the children “do”, they execute their plan in a very purposeful way.

Following the activity, they “review” or discuss with an adult and/or other children what they did and what they learned. High scope looks to assess the child based on anecdotal notes broken down by the following categories: approaches to learning, social and emotional development, physical development and health, language/literacy/communication, mathematics, creative arts, science and technology, and social studies.

At parent conferences, these anecdotes are shared with the parents to demonstrate learning is happening within these different categories. High scope centres should be accredited through the high scope governing body much the same as Montessori schools, where they can label themselves as high scope yet not truly adhere to or be recognized as accredited.

🌸4)Reggio Emilia / Emergent

This approach focuses heavily on documenting the children’s learning as well as allowing the children to really take on their interests. The parents and educators, as a community are there to support the learning process of the child over the time that they are there at a Reggio or a Reggio-inspired centre. The learning is broken up into projects that are open-ended. Children are given certain concepts that they need to solve through research, questioning and experimentation. There is a strong focus on the arts, which is a vehicle to allow the child to express their thoughts and emotions through multiple mediums. Reggio also looks to expose the children to nature, which means there is a lot of outdoor play in environments that promote the use using natural items from the environment to be incorporated into their play. There are no standardized tests and learning is demonstrated through the projects that they explored, which was documented by the educator’s.

Waldorf kindergarten Dinkelsbühl – Classroom Aesthetics and Set-up

🌸5)Waldorf

In this educational method, children are exposed to a humanitarian, socially responsible and compassionate mode of approaching the world. Typically the educator that works with one group of children will be with that same group as they get older and go from one grade to the next. The arts and academics are fused together within the lessons. These schools are also zero technology in the classroom and exposure for the children. This methodology does however, only focuses on reading when the child reaches the age of seven, with emphasis on storytelling and learning through play. Part of the Waldorf teacher training is learning about anthroposophy, developed by Rudolf Steiner. Although not directly taught to the children, this spiritual philosophy does diffuse to some extent into the daily interactions.

🌼Applications in Programming:

Blended versus

Traditional Approach

Give the variety of approaches to early childhood education, it begs the question:

which one is the best?

Or, more appropriately, does one method hold sway over another?

The short, and perhaps frustrating, answer is:

🌈it depends.

Some programs prefer a traditional approach, adhering to a pure curriculum.

🌈Montessori and Waldorf are both approaches that can be sustained well beyond the early childhood level and into high school.

That said, it is important to understand that methods and pedagogies are frameworks that can inspire practice rather than cut and dry rubrics. In the present moment, it is increasingly the case where programs adopt a blended approach incorporating two or more methods in their program. This is due to the fact that there are distinct advantages to curating aspects from each available method, and adapting it to engage children.

Imagine a curriculum built from a combination of the different methods that allows teachers to strike a balance between instructional teaching and constructive learning.

Taking the thought experiment further, 🌷one could technically draw on Reggio for its community and documentation;

🌷Montessori for its independent self-directed studies;

🌷Waldorf for its integration of the arts and social consciousness and lastly;

🌷High Scope for its invaluable three-step process to ensure purposeful, planned and reflected learning processes.

Ultimately, the choice of curriculum boils down to the mission of a center.

⭐️Is the goal to foster community,

⭐️or to bring structure and process,

⭐️or to bring children back to nature,

⭐️or something entirely new?

These are the questions that will help curate a curriculum. I hope that this article has provided insight and inspired questions!

“感官越敏锐,来自于环境的情报和反馈就会越准确,智力发展就越有效。” ~~蒙台梭利教室的感官区介绍~~

“感官越敏锐,来自于环境的情报和反馈就会越准确,智力发展就越有效。” ~~蒙台梭利教室的感官区介绍~~

今天要向大家介绍一下,蒙台梭利教室的感官区。

在蒙台梭利工作材料中,感官区的教具第一眼看过去是最像玩具的,事实上很多市面上的益智玩具最初都受到了蒙台梭利的启发。感官教具为孩子提供的探索空间和吸引力是无可比拟的。但它也常常是被误用最多的材料。它需要导师对孩子使用材料工作的状态有一个准确的判断,懂得什么时候需要重新演示材料和重新引导,也要懂得什么时候让孩子大胆尝试。

感官教育的目的

帮助儿童感官的发展对早期认知发展至关重要。因为感官和智力发展的关系非常密切。感官是用来接收来自外部世界图像的器官,如视觉、听觉、触觉器官等,智力是建立在感官从环境中获得的印象发展而来的。感官越敏锐,来自于环境的情报和反馈就会越准确,智力发展就越有效。

儿童早期感官的发展

在0至3岁的初期,儿童通过感官感受到许多印象,包括对象的品质和特征,这个年幼的孩子吸收了他的环境中的一切,并储存在他的无意识记忆中。在这个无意识的过程中,他用这些印象构建了他的吸收性心灵。

随后在3至6岁,孩子意识到所吸收众多信息的类别。感官材料旨在帮助这个年龄段的孩子理解消化这些概念,帮助形成逻辑分类。特别是2.5岁到3.5岁的孩子,感官发展活跃而敏感,是使用这些材料建立概念的关键期。四岁之后,孩子对感官材料的基本使用方法慢慢失去兴趣,需要导师引导他们使用材料进行深入的、创造性的探索,如将某两种有内在联系的材料一起组合使用。

感官教具的定义

蒙台梭利感官教具是一个系列的物体按照某种确定的性质组合在一起,但是存在程度变化的材料。

蒙台梭利感官教具的功能是通过进一步精化感知能力来帮助儿童智力的发展,帮助孩子分类所有物体以及他所见过和经历的一切。孩子学习如何观察物体存在不同的特质,进行比较,并作出选择,例如匹配或排序。通过使用这些材料,还可以检测一些身体上的障碍,如色弱等。

除了这些直接目的之外,感官材料还为算术,几何和代数的后续学习提供间接准备。 例如,大多数感官材料是十个一组的差别序列,为数学的十进制做间接的准备。

感官教具的特点

如果要用一句话概括感官教具的特点,那就是“具象化的抽象概念”。教具有效地把抽象的概念,如质量、体积、材质等,变成孩子看得见摸得着的实物,符合孩子的接受能力,让孩子更快地理解这些概念。以下的特点让感官教具具有这样的功能:

单独强调一项困难度
凸显一个性质上的差别,例如红棒材料,凸显的是长度的差别,而保留物体其他方面性质如宽度、高度等的一致性,让孩子一次认知一个特质。

单独凸显一项要孩子掌握的物体性质  
当物体存在多个性质上的差别时,孩子就容易对物体性质的抽象概念出现混淆,所以教具让孩子可以有效地一项一项地掌握每个概念,认知后再进行组合。例如:触温板的工作中要使用眼罩,这样就放大并强化了触感的区别,而不让视觉作为干扰。

材料的使用包含着运动的发展  
材料被设计得与孩子在身体上是成比例的,与孩子的体能发展是相符的,这样他就可以处理它们,甚至是一些重的东西。

材料中内在的错误控制  
蒙台梭利的感官材料具有内在纠错功能,让孩子自己发现问题的所在而不会感到挫败。例如:在三角形几何盒子A中,每个三角形的黑色线条就是提示的错误控制。

包含“了解世界的钥匙”  
感官材料所提供的都是普遍性的概念,不分文化地域,所有的颜色、形状、长度等概念都是通用的,尽管世界上这些概念有数不尽的表现形式,在教具中选取只是最具代表性的样本,所以感官区所提供的训练也被称为是给孩子“了解世界的钥匙”。

感官材料的延伸练习:记忆游戏

在孩子已经能合理地使用材料,并对材料的基本知识点了解之后,大多数的感官材料都有很多隐藏的延伸活动,不仅巩固基本概念,测试掌握程度,还会增添乐趣,重新点燃孩子使用材料学习的兴趣。主要的延伸活动是以下四种记忆游戏:

游戏一:远距离游戏
这种游戏多用于配对和排序的工作材料。相对于在小范围桌子或毯子上的配对来讲,远距离配对增加了难度和挑战,儿童不再能直接地看见所有的物品,却需要锻炼对物品特质的记忆力,进一步地发展抽象能力。例如,几何柜和几何卡片这项工作中,孩子需要先记住卡片上的形状,然后步行穿越到远处的毯子上拿来他记忆中的形状材料,走回来再通过贴合图片来检验他的记忆和选择是否正确。这是一项孩子们乐此不疲的活动,特别是那些爱动的孩子,因为可以合法地走来走去!

游戏二:语言游戏
很多人可能想不到感官材料也是孩子学习语言的重要工具。所有的材料都有对应的精确语言,那些可能对成人来讲都是艰涩的词语,孩子们学来却可以不费吹灰之力。通过感官材料来学习语言,有趣又有效。例如:一些列拼图地图的工作,孩子们在拼图和制作地图的过程中,学习到的国家名词可能超过很多成年人,但重要的不是他能记住具体国家的名字,而是他在无意中为语言发展积累了语音、语感、词汇等等组成部分。

游戏三:在环境中找到与材料匹配的特质
拿着材料去周围环境中去比较,从而找到和材料具有一样特质的物品。这项游戏特别适合那些刚到新环境的小孩子们,他们对环境的物品充满了好奇,但是由于能操作和使用的工作材料特别有限,所以常常没有机会去接触很多物品。现在他们可以用他们的好奇来完成任务,发展他们的观察力和分类能力。例如:颜色盒子3,里面有众多色调差微妙的颜色,孩子需要非常用心地去找,在以前他没有注意到的差别中去匹配,然后发现:原来这盆植物的绿色和另一个有那么一点点不一样。

游戏四:分级材料的小组活动
这是一项重新点燃孩子对熟悉工作的热情的好方法,而且还可以训练孩子的合作能力。拿粉红塔为例,大家都知道粉红塔是3岁左右的孩子做的最早的感官教具之一,很可能被大一点的孩子认为“太过简单”,特别是那些四岁多的孩子,他们处于半懂不懂的状态,却对什么都不屑一顾,并常常抱团,有很强的社交需求,总之可能让你很头疼。那么你可以拿出粉红塔,聚集起10个知道怎么正确使用它的孩子,把手背在后面,偷偷地被分配粉红塔的一个立方体,要求他们在不拿出来看的情况下,彼此不知道每个人所持有的立方体的大小的情况下,靠触摸合作完成粉红塔的建造。这是一项非常吸引孩子的游戏,你一定会听到他们不断地要求你“再来一次吧!”

感官教具体现了蒙台梭利的探索式学习,儿童在学习中是真正的主体,每个孩子发现和接受这些抽象概念的方式、时机和顺序都是独特的,给他们所需的工具、材料和适当的引导,还有一个自由的空间,他们会创造出一个独特的世界。

Is academic ranking important?                            排名重要吗?

Is academic ranking important? 排名重要吗?

The ranking system is a big issue in the conventional education system.

This system cannot accurately evaluate our children’s potential. It merely forces children to compete with each other under the same standards, without considering their individual strengths and abilities.

Imagine this: If we put different animals such as elephants, lions, tigers, and ants in the same race, the ants are most likely to come in the last place. However, the existence of ants has its meaning and purpose. There are some things that can not be done by lions and elephants, but ants have their special ability to slowly achieve them through unity, team spirit and vitality!

It is important to reflect and review on ways that we can mix talented students with different abilities and strengths in a huge classroom. We need to stop focusing on the ranking system as the only measurement of our children’s potential.

It is time to take action and practice it earnestly!

排名制在教育里出了大问题,

他没有办法让我们的孩子看到自己的特質,而是在同一标准下,与他人比较。

想象一下:如果将大象、狮子、老虎和蚂蚁放在一起比赛,蚂蚁很可能排在最后,但是蚂蚁的存在一定有它的意义,某一些事情狮子、大象做不到的,可是蚂蚁却有这个能力慢慢地做到……看看它们的团结、合群及生命力!

如何在大班制作常态分班,不以名次及成绩作为唯一的衡量标准,是要认真思考的方向!

希望不再处于呼吁的阶段,而是要认真的实践了!

接受蒙特梭利教育是何许人?(Who is Montessori Education Alumni?)

接受蒙特梭利教育是何许人?(Who is Montessori Education Alumni?)

众多教育专家认为蒙氏教育是成就天才的教育流派,微软的比尔盖茨、谷歌的两位创始人、现代管理学之夫德鲁克、英国威廉王子和哈里王子,都曾进入这一类学校。

这种教育流派在全世界被流传一百多年,但是在马来西亚,虽然从八十年代起开始传入马来西亚,却仍然不算被非常多人知晓,这就是蒙特梭利教育,Montessori Education 简称蒙氏教育。

蒙氏教育创立于19世纪初,创始人是玛利亚 蒙特梭利博士是意大利人,生于1870年,她一生都在研究孩子如何学习,对长期发展最好教育。第一个蒙氏学校1907年在罗马大学旁边创立,当时有50个学生,学校现在还在运行。蒙特梭利是医学博士,这在19世纪初的女性中,受到这么高教育的女性是不多的。她事业的前几年,是进行特殊教育,帮助并研究学习有障碍的孩子,然后将方法总结出来,推广到普通的孩子的教育。

目前世界上有2万所蒙氏学校,美国有5,000 多所学校,包括300所公立学校。

混年龄教室

蒙氏教育的特点和体系非常明显,最大的一个特点是混年龄教室,这是有序的分段活动。混龄班级,可以让年龄小的学生学习大的学生,年龄大的学生培养领导力。

蒙特梭利的教室,和普通教室很不一样,更像是大学的实验室。没有成排的桌椅,老师的讲台,每个孩子都坐在地上,面对小毯子,来做自己的小项目,每天位置会有所变换。

蒙氏学校不推崇分数和考试,尽管目前有些蒙氏学校也引入了一些成绩和考试,但是很少。蒙氏认为,考试和分数,对学生的学习的深入程度不利而且有害。

没有课间,让孩子更能长时间专注

这样安排的原因有两个,一是传统的学校每个学生固定座位,所有学生听一个老师讲固定内容的设置中,需要recess来活跃学生,但是蒙氏学校没有对座位的要求,可以走来走去。另外,蒙氏学生鼓励动手,每个学生在完成自己教具过程中,一直在动手,和活动,而不是死板听讲。而定时的Recess,可能会影响到学生注意力的集中。建立学生长时间专注的能力,蒙特梭利博士认为对孩子的成长是更加重要的。

强大的“蒙氏黑帮”

蒙特梭利校友圈很强大,除了我们最开始提到的谷歌的两个创始人 Larry Page 和Sergey Brin,亚马逊创始人Jeff Bezos,微软创始人比尔盖茨,还有 Wikipedia 创始人Jimmy Wales,管理学之父德鲁克,英国的威廉姆和亨利两个王子。这群校友,被华尔街时报戏称为“蒙氏黑帮” Montessori Mafia,因为蒙氏是意大利人,

世界著名文学家,诺贝尔文学奖得主,《百年孤独》作者加夫列尔·加西亚·马尔克斯曾这样评价:“我不相信还有比蒙特梭利更好的一种方法,能让孩子们对世界上的美好保持敏感度,对生命的奥秘怀有好奇心。”

亚马逊的创始人更加強调,他说“我六年级从蒙特梭利学校毕业以后,教育上就一直在走下坡路。”这也有可能,因为一个人一生能遇到一个好的老师,就不容易了。

蒙氏不仅有耀眼的校友,也有强大的支持者,亚历山大贝尔,支持开创了加拿大第一个蒙氏学校;爱迪生,在美国开创了4个蒙氏学校。

家长们了解一些蒙氏教育的理念和方法,是可以来教育和帮助孩子成长的,尤其是在学龄前和小学阶段。蒙氏不仅有完整的教育理念,教学方法,组织形式,光彩的成功的证明,和还有完善的教具体系。

玛利亚·蒙特梭利博士曾说过,老师或家长主要的任务,是应该给孩子提供机会,让他们独立,靠自己的能力完成目标,增长孩子的自信心和自尊心。

作为家长,我们是否在可能的情况下,可以尝试退后一步,让孩子有机会自我引导,自我选择,享受发现的乐趣,成长学习的能力,同时也希望他们可以取得“蒙氏黑帮”里这些人这样的成就。

自由vs纪律

自由vs纪律

现在有種被误吹捧的教育,叫釋放孩子的天性。以为孩子身上所有的特點,都可以歸之為天性,無論是好,還是壞,都具有天然的合理性,不可辯駁、不可壓制。

但很多家長把“釋放天性“做到了極致。任由孩子在公共場合追逐打鬧,大聲喧嘩;隨意地拿筆亂塗亂畫;故意損壞別人的物品……面對孩子無理取鬧的行為,父母不但不禁止,反而把它當作“釋放天性”。

1

在車站等車的時候,旁邊坐著一位年輕的媽媽,帶著兩個小孩。

孩子性格很外向,好動,到處踩著沒人坐的凳子各種跑。

那時已經是晚上了,候車的人正坐在座位上眯覺。

這倆孩子的舉動無疑影響到了別人。旁人自然是有些不耐煩,有些人便重新找了座位。

旁邊空位多起來之後,他們玩得更歡了。

孩子跑的時候,不小心摔了一下,手裡的優酪乳灑在一位男子身上。

男子有些生氣,說了孩子幾句。

孩子立刻哭了起來,她媽媽聽到哭聲趕緊過來,把孩子拉到身旁。

“把你衣服弄髒了,真是對不起。”孩子媽媽很真摯地道了歉,隨後又說道,“不過這倆孩子還小,天性就是好動愛玩……”

接著又任由孩子在車站裡亂跑。

父母们,请看清事实,若盲目地釋放孩子天性,將會毀掉你的孩子。

2

朋友有個兩歲多的小孩。

孩子很機靈,對什麼都有好奇心,很喜歡搗鼓家裡的小玩意。

朋友非常注重釋放孩子的天性,也經常帶著孩子一起探索。

所以遙控器會被孩子浸到水裡,手機被孩子扔碎了,衛生紙被孩子撕碎,地上到處都是紙屑。

家裡的東西經常隔一兩個月就要更換,因為被孩子“探索“而弄壞了。

牆上的牆紙很貴,因為很喜歡才咬牙買下來。

現在上面全是孩子的“傑作“。有時候朋友也挺心疼的,但想著不能扼殺孩子的天性,也只好任由孩子畫了。

朋友說,現在社會需要的是創新型人才,中規中矩的教育只會扼殺孩子的好奇心和探索欲望。

別人忍受不了這樣的孩子,是因為他們不夠寬容,不能理解孩子的天性。

無論孩子的行為是否正確,都會被父母允許。

在一家火鍋店,一位孩子隨意地在過道上跑來跑去。

孩子的媽媽在後面跟著,沒有任何制止。

可能是覺得孩子天性就是愛玩,於是默許了孩子的行為。

然而不幸的事情發生了。在拐彎的地方,一名服務員端著一鍋滾燙的烤魚,孩子不小心撞上了,多處被燙傷。

事後,父母態度極其囂張地索要39萬賠償。

“誰家的孩子燙成這樣不值39萬?”

出事後,他們把自己的責任甩得一乾二淨。

在釋放天性上,很多父母是毫無規則意識,放養式地任由孩子隨意成長。

但是孩子生下來是一張白紙,倘若沒有家長的約束與管教,孩子很有可能變得缺乏教養、蠻不講理。

3

義大利教育家蒙特梭利女士特別注重給孩子尊重和自由。

她認為應該給幼兒充分的自由,充分的發展空間,以及自由和自主學習的機會。

但是,她所謂自由與我們許多父母理解的自由有著本質的不同。

在蒙特梭利女士眼裡,所謂的自由,不是放縱或無限制的自由,

而是強調以兒童為主題的教育,重視兒童,滿足兒童的需求,兒童通過反復工作獲得滿足,形成自發性的規則。

在蒙氏教室裡,孩子可以自由選擇工作或者不工作;使用哪個教具;和誰一起工作;工作多久。

但是,若孩子隨意損壞教具,工作完不整理好教具則不被允許。

蒙特梭利女士生動地闡釋了規則與自由的關係。

在這個案例文化,離開規則的自由是根本不存在的。

4

其實,釋放孩子天性本身是沒有錯的。

但很多父母採取的教育方式,與釋放天性完全格格不入。

他們錯誤地認為,不管不顧的放養式教育就是釋放孩子天性。

殊不知,這樣最終會害了孩子,因為一個沒有規則意識的孩子,是無法適應社會的。

❤️在尊重孩子天性的前提下,一定要幫孩子建立規則,這是父母身上肩負的最重要的教育責任。

❤️這意味著,對於孩子的合理要求,我們儘量滿足;對於不合理的要求,我們必須堅決不滿足,這是界限,絕對不能跨越。

這可以幫助孩子更好地保護自己,是孩子健康快樂成長的前提。

美國總統奧巴馬有兩個女兒,他對孩子的教育堪稱美國精英教育的典範。在倆孩子10歲和7歲的時候,奧巴馬給她們制訂了9條家規。

家規1:不能有無理的抱怨、爭吵或者惹人討厭的取笑;

家規2:一定要鋪床,不能只是看上去整潔而已;

家規3:自己的事情自己做,比如自己沖麥片或倒牛奶,自己疊被子,自己設置鬧鐘,自己起床並穿衣服;

家規4:保持玩具房的乾淨;

家規5:幫父母分擔家務,每週1美元;

家規6:每逢生日或是耶誕節,沒有豪華的禮物和華麗的聚會;

家規7:每晚8點30分準時熄燈。

家規8:安排充實的課餘生活:跳舞、排戲、彈鋼琴、打網球、玩橄欖球;

家規9:不准追星。

很多人都喜歡外國教育的自由,但是千萬別忘了,他們在尊重孩子天性的同時,會給孩子制定明確的規則。

既有自由也有規則,才是正確的釋放天性。

引文自:http://www.healthyssky.xyz/d_dWpOSVllZTIvVjFOeHVBb2lpeStXZz09